Linux System Administration Basic Configuration

Some of the basic steps and issues encountered during the beginning of Linux system administration configuration. We provide a basic information for your convenience if you are new users Linux system administration training.

Set the host name: hostname

hostname -f

The first command should show your short host name, and the second should show your fully qualified domain name (FQDN).

Set the time Zone: Setting the time zone of your server, it may be best to set it to the time zone of the bulk of your users. If you are insecure which time zone would be best, judge using universal synchronized time or UTC. The following process will set the time zone manually, though many operating systems provide a more elegant method for changing time zones. To change the time zone manually  you must find the proper zone file in /usr/share/zoneinfo/ and link that file to /etc/local time. See the example below for common promise. All contents following the double hashes (eg. ##) are comments and should not be copied into your terminal.

ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/UTC /etc/local time ## for Universal Coordinated Time

ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/EST /etc/local time ## for Eastern Standard Time

ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/US/Central /etc/local time ## for American Central time including DST.

ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/US/Eastern /etc/local time ## for American Eastern including DST

To change the time zone in Debian and Ubuntu systems issue the following command and answer the questions as prompted by the utility:

dpkg-reconfigure tzdata

Arch Linux, set the time zone in the /etc/rc.conf file by configuring the TIMEZONE= setting in the “Localization” section. This line will resemble the following:

File excerpt:/etc/rc.conf

TIMEZONE=”America/New_York”

The thread specific in time zone refers to the “zone info” file located in or below the /usr/share/zoneinfo/ directory.

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Use the /etc/hosts File: The /etc/hosts file provides a list of IP addresses with matching host names. This allows you to specify hostnames for an IP address once on the local machine, and then have many applications connect to outer resources via their host names. The system of host files predates DNS, and hosts files are for all time check before DNS is query. As a result, /etc/hosts can be useful for preserve tiny “internal” net works, for increase reason, and for administration clusters. Some applications require that the machine properly know itself in the /etc/hosts file. As a result, we propose configuring the /etc/hosts file rapidly after deployment. Here is an example file:

File excerpt:/etc/hosts

127.0.0.1    localhost.localdomain   localhost

12.34.56.78  squire.example.com  squire

You can recognize a numeral of host names on all line divided by places. Every line should start with one and only one IP address. In this case, return 12.34.56.78 with your machine’s IP address. Let us believe a little additional /etc/hosts entries:

File excerpt:/etc/hosts

74.125.67.100   test.com

192.168.1.1 stick.example.com

All requests for the test.com” hostname or domain will resolve to the IP address 74.125.67.100, which bypasses the DNS records for test.com and returns an alternate website.

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